## table in R: Create a Tabular representation of Data in R

Among the various ways to represent data in R, the most commonly used is a table. table in R A table is a built-in R data structure used to represent data using variable names and frequency categorically. The table uses the cross-classifying factors to build a contingency table of the counts at each combination of … Read more

## sapply: What is sapply() Function in R

The sapply() function works like lapply(), but it tries to interpret the output to the most fundamental data structure possible, either Vector or Matrix. The sapply() is a “wrapper” function for lapply(). The apply() function is bundled with R essential package if installed with Anaconda. The apply() function returns the vector or array by applying a … Read more

## pnorm: What is pnorm() Function in R

The pnorm() function calculates the c. d. f. where X is normal. Optional arguments described on the online documentation specify the parameters of the particular normal distribution. pnorm in R The pnorm in R is a built-in function that returns the value of the cumulative density function (cdf) of the normal distribution given a certain random … Read more

## How to Use setwd() Function in R

The working directory can be your best friend or ruthless adversary. Confusion about the working directory is a great time waster. Whenever you want to perform some advanced action, you need to ensure that you are in the correct directory. Otherwise, it can create an issue for you. getwd in R The getwd in r … Read more

## rnorm: What is rnorm() Function in R

The rnorm() function in R generates a random number using a normal(bell curve) distribution. Thus, the rnorm() function simulates random variates having a specified normal distribution. What is Normal Distribution in R The normal distribution is the collection of random data from independent sources. We get the bell shape curve by plotting a graph with … Read more

## is.na in r: How to Use is.na() function in R

When working in a real-time dataset, you won’t get clean data. Real-world data is always filled with missing values. So if you are developing an algorithm that can predict the future values, you first need to clean the existing data, and based on that, you can create a model and feed the data. What is … Read more

## Standard deviation in R: How to Use sd() in R

We have already seen how to calculate percentile and variance in R programming. We have also seen how to calculate Mean and Mode in R. Let’s see how to compute the standard deviation, but before that, let’s understand what SD is. What is Standard Deviation The standard deviation of a population is the square root of … Read more

## cbind in R: How to Bind Data Frame By Columns

The cbind() and rbind() functions are generic methods for data frames. These data frame functions will be used if at least one argument is a data frame and the other are vectors or matrices. To merge two data frames (datasets) horizontally, use the merge() function in the R language. cbind in R The cbind short for column … Read more

## dnorm in r: What is dnorm() function in r

The dnorm() function gives the density. The pnorm() function gives the distribution function. The qnorm() function gives the quantile function. The rnorm() function generates random deviates. dnorm in r The dnorm in r is a built-in function that calculates the density function with a mean(μ) and standard deviation(σ) for any value of x, μ, and σ. … Read more

## How to Use Dollar sign in R

There are four forms of the extract operator in R: [, [[, \$, and @. The fourth form is the slot operator and is used to extract content from objects built with the S4 object system, also known as a formally defined object in R. Most beginning R users don’t work with formally defined objects … Read more