How to Calculate Mean in R

Mean means the arithmetic average of a number in mathematics. An average is the sum of total numbers divided by the count of the numbers. To calculate the arithmetic mean of a vector or dataset in R, use the mean() function. The above figure shows the simplest example of the mean, which returns 2.5. Syntax … Read more

How to Append an Element to a List at Any Position in R

List in R is a data structure that can hold multiple types of elements. You can expand or shrink the list based on your requirements. To grow the list, you can add an element (numeric value, character vectors, other lists, data frames, or functions) at whichever position you like. Here are five ways to add … Read more

How to Convert List to Numeric in R

To convert a list to a numeric value in R, you can combine the unlist() function and the as.numeric() function. The “unlist()” function produces a vector that contains all the atomic components and the as.numeric() function returns a numeric value or converts any value to a numeric value. Syntax as.numeric(unlist(data)) Parameters data: It is the data … Read more

How to Convert Float to String in R

Here are three ways to convert a float to a string in R: Using as.character() Using sprintf() Using toString() Method 1: Using as.character() The as.character() function generates a string representation of a provided argument. float_val <- 21.19 chr <- as.character(float_val) chr Output [1] “21.19” To check the variable data type, use the typeof() function. float_val … Read more

How to Convert Double to Int in R

To convert a double or float to an integer, you can use the “as.integer()” function. Syntax as.integer(x) Parameters x: It is the object. Return value It returns an integer object. Visual representation Example 1: Converting a float to an integer r_float <- 11.21 print(r_float) print(typeof(r_float)) r_int <- as.integer(r_float) print(r_int) print(typeof(r_int)) Output [1] 11.21 [1] “double” … Read more

How to Convert Date to Character in R

Here are two ways to convert Date to Character in R: Using as.character() Using format() Method 1: Using as.character() dates <- c(“11/20/80”, “11/20/91”, “11/20/1993”, “09/10/93”) dt <- as.Date(dates, “%m/%d/%y”) strDates <- as.character(dt) strDates Output [1] “1980-11-20” “1991-11-20” “2019-11-20” “1993-09-10” Method 2: Using format() If you need to format the date in a specific way during … Read more

Understanding the as.factor() Function in R: Converting to Categorical Data

Overview Before diving into the as.factor() function, let’s understand categorical data and why it is helpful in statistical analysis. Categorical data is data that is divided into groups and categories that are distinct from each other. For example, colors (red, green, blue), brands (Nike, Puma, Asics), or types of cuisine (Italian, Chinese, Indian) are categories. … Read more

Understanding the as.numeric() Function in R

Data occasionally comes in various formats, including numeric values stored as text (characters) or categories (factors). When preparing the data for further analysis, you must ensure it is in the correct format. To perform numerical operations, you need these in numeric format, and that’s where as.numeric() function comes into play! What is the as.numeric function? … Read more

R grepl() Function

The grepl() function in R is used for pattern matching and searching within strings. It’s a variation of the grep() function, where grepl() returns a logical vector suggesting whether a pattern is found in each element of a character vector. Syntax grepl(pattern, x, ignore.case = FALSE, perl = FALSE, fixed = FALSE, useBytes = FALSE) … Read more

R month.abb

The month.abb is a built-in R constant, a three-letter abbreviation for the English month names. Example 1: Basic usage month.abb Output [1] “Jan” “Feb” “Mar” “Apr” “May” “Jun” “Jul” “Aug” “Sep” “Oct” “Nov” “Dec” Example 2: Changing abbreviations to numerical month values If you have a vector of integers consisting of the number of the month, then … Read more