## Unlocking Statistical Consistency with set.seed in R

Picture this: You are playing Snakes and Ladder and need the dice to roll the same way every time. Sounds a bit like cheating, right? In R, you can have this superpower, introducing the set.seed() function. The set.seed() function sets the seed of R’s random number generator. The set.seed() function replicates the exact reproducible random … Read more

## What is copy-on-modify Semantics in R

The copy-on-modify semantics is a memory management technique that modifies one or more objects, copies those objects to a new location in memory, and makes some modifications there, leaving the original unchanged. There are two types of copying in R: Lazy copying Copy-on-modify Lazy copying When you assign an existing object to a new variable, … Read more

## How to Find Standard deviation in R [Using Real-life DataSet]

The standard deviation is a measure that tells you how spread out data are in a dataset. It is a measurement of the dispersion of the values. Picture this: You and your friends live near each other and daily walk to the school. If you count the total number of steps you and your friend … Read more

## How to Calculate Mean in R

Mean means the arithmetic average of a number in mathematics. An average is the sum of total numbers divided by the count of the numbers. To calculate the arithmetic mean of a vector or dataset in R, use the mean() function. The above figure shows the simplest example of the mean, which returns 2.5. Syntax … Read more

## How to Append an Element to a List at Any Position in R

List in R is a data structure that can hold multiple types of elements. You can expand or shrink the list based on your requirements. To grow the list, you can add an element (numeric value, character vectors, other lists, data frames, or functions) at whichever position you like. Here are five ways to add … Read more

## R ln() Function (SciViews Package)

The ln() function from the SciViews package calculates the natural log of the input vector. R does not come with an ln() function but provides a log10() function. Syntax ln(x) ln1p() lg() lg1p(x) E lb() Parameters x: It is a numeric or complex vector. Return value It returns the natural logarithm of a value. Example … Read more

## How to Convert List to Numeric in R

To convert a list to a numeric value in R, you can combine the unlist() function and the as.numeric() function. The “unlist()” function produces a vector that contains all the atomic components and the as.numeric() function returns a numeric value or converts any value to a numeric value. Syntax as.numeric(unlist(data)) Parameters data: It is the data … Read more

## How to Use “lwd” in R

The lwd in R is used to specify the width of plot lines. It is a parameter that can be set in various plotting functions, such as plot(), lines(), abline(), etc. Syntax of lwd parameter plot( x, y, pch = 1, cex = 1, col = 1, bg = 0, lwd = 1, lty = … Read more

## How to Convert Float to String in R

Here are three ways to convert a float to a string in R: Using as.character() Using sprintf() Using toString() Method 1: Using as.character() The as.character() function generates a string representation of a provided argument. float_val <- 21.19 chr <- as.character(float_val) chr Output [1] “21.19” To check the variable data type, use the typeof() function. float_val … Read more

## How to Convert Double to Int in R

To convert a double or float to an integer, you can use the “as.integer()” function. Syntax as.integer(x) Parameters x: It is the object. Return value It returns an integer object. Visual representation Example 1: Converting a float to an integer r_float <- 11.21 print(r_float) print(typeof(r_float)) r_int <- as.integer(r_float) print(r_int) print(typeof(r_int)) Output [1] 11.21 [1] “double” … Read more