What is String as factor in R

What is String as factor in R

The data frames in R can have different data types. But each column should have the same type of data. To create a data frame in R, use the data.frame() function. A data frame is a table or a two-dimensional array-like structure. By default, R converts character strings to factors while creating data frames directly … Read more

How to Append to Empty List in R

How to Append to Empty List in R

R List is a data structure having items of different data types. You can append, update, or remove elements from the list. First, let’s see how to create an empty list and append an element to the list. R append to empty list To append to an empty list in R, use the append() function. … Read more

How to Create Empty Matrix in R

How to Create Empty Matrix in R

An empty matrix can be created simultaneously as we create a regular matrix in R, but we will not provide any value inside the matrix function. How to create an empty Matrix in R To create an empty matrix in R, use the matrix() function, do not pass any data; pass ncol = 0 values … Read more

How to Create an Empty Vector in R

How to Create Empty Vector in R

Empty vectors have 0 length in R. There are several ways to create empty vectors and add elements. A vector is a basic data structure that contains elements of the same type. Let’s see how to create or initialize the empty vector in R. How to Create an Empty Vector in R To create an empty … Read more

How to Create an Empty List in R

How to Create Empty List in R

A list is a specific vector type but can store mixed data types. In this example, we wanted to create a list with no elements and a length of 0. To initialize the empty vector of a given length, you can use the rep() function. your_length <- 10 empty_vec <- rep(NA, your_length) empty_vec Output [1] NA … Read more

How to Create Empty data frame in R

How to Create Empty DataFrame in R

Data Frame in R is a table or a two-dimensional array-like structure for storing data tables. Each element of the data frame builds the column, and the contents of the elements create the rows. There are several real-life scenarios where we need to initialize an empty data frame or empty an existing data frame with … Read more

pch in R: How to Use Plot Character in R

What is pch in R | Plot Character in R with Example

While creating a plot in R, you can add explanatory text like axis labels, titles, legends, or text. In addition, many plotting symbols available in R can be used in plots. For example, the graphical argument used to specify point shapes is pch, and we will discuss the same in this post. pch in R … Read more

What is dnorm() Function in R

dnorm() Function in R with Example

The dnorm() function gives the density. The pnorm() function gives the distribution function. The qnorm() function gives the quantile function. The rnorm() function generates random deviates. dnorm in R The dnorm() in R is a built-in function that calculates the density function with a mean(μ) and standard deviation(σ) for any value of x, μ, and σ. The … Read more

Variance in R: How to Use var() Function in R

How to Calculate Variance in R using var() Function

The variance is a standard of variability. The variance is calculated by taking the average squared deviations from the mean. The variance shows you the degree of spread in your dataset. The more separated the data, the larger the variance is about the mean. Let’s see the definition of variance. What is Variance The variance … Read more