To create a factor variable in R, use the **factor** function. Let’s talk about as.factor() function in R Language.

**as.factor in R**

The as.factor() is a built-in R function that converts a column from numeric to factor. The as.factor() method takes column or data frame **x** as an argument and returns the requested column specified as a factor rather than numeric.

**Syntax**

`as.factor(x)`

**Parameters**

**x:** The as.factor() function takes x as a column in an object of class or data frame.

**Return value**

It returns the original object of a class with the requested column specified as a factor rather than numeric.

**Example**

Let’s define a character vector using the c() function.

```
data <- c("m", "l", "a")
as.factor(data)
```

**Output**

```
[1] m l a
Levels: a l m
```

**Using as.factor() function to the character object containing numbers**

We can apply the as.factor() function to the integer vector and see the output.

```
data <- c("1.1", "11", "2.2", "22")
as.factor(data)
```

**Output**

```
[1] 1.1 11 2.2 22
Levels: 1.1 11 2.2 22
```

**How to Convert a Factor in R**

To convert factors to text, use the as.character() function.

To convert factors to numbers, use the as.numeric() functions.

```
data <- c("zack", "synder", "cut")
as.factor(data)
```

**Output**

```
[1] zack synder cut
Levels: cut synder zack
```

To convert it into text, use the as.character() function.

```
data <- c("zack", "synder", "cut")
factr <- as.factor(data)
chr <- as.character(factr)
chr
```

**Output**

`1] "zack" "synder" "cut"`

Now, let’s convert a factor to numbers using as.numeric() function.

```
data <- c("zack", "synder", "cut")
factr <- as.factor(data)
intr <- as.numeric(factr)
intr
```

**Output**

`[1] 3 2 1`

Using the as.numeric() function to convert a factor to a numeric vector. You can see that in the output that the numeric codes correspond to the factor levels. For example, “**zack**“ corresponds to 3, “**snyder**“ corresponds to 2, and “cut” fits 1.

**Conclusion**

The as.factor() function is a wrapper for factor, allowing quick return if the input vector is already a factor.

That is it for this tutorial.

Krunal Lathiya is an Information Technology Engineer by education and web developer by profession. He has worked with many back-end platforms, including Node.js, PHP, and Python. In addition, Krunal has excellent knowledge of Data Science and Machine Learning, and he is an expert in R Language. Krunal has written many programming blogs, which showcases his vast expertise in this field.