# ln in R: How to Calculate Natural Log in R using SciViews

To calculate the natural log in R, use the log() function. The default setting of this function is to return the natural logarithm of a value. But through a package called SciViews, you can use the ln() function, which also calculates the natural log in R. We will see about the ln() function in this tutorial.

## ln in R

The ln() function comes with the SciViews package that takes a vector as an argument and returns the natural log of the input vector. We define ln() and ln1p() as wrappers for log()“ with defaultbase = exp(1) argument and for log1p(), respectively. The lg1p() is a convenient way to use the optimized code to calculate the logarithm of x + 1 but returning the result in base 10 logarithm.

``````ln(x)

ln1p()

lg()

lg1p(x)

E

lb()``````

### Arguments

x: It is a numeric or complex vector.

### Examples

R does not come with ln() function. R provides log10() function. To use ln() function, use the SciViews package.

``````library("SciViews")

ln(exp(2))
ln1p(c(0, 1, 11, 110))
lg(11 ^ 3)
lg1p(c(0, 1, 11, 110))
E ^ 4
lb(1:4)``````

#### Output

`````` 2
 0.0000000 0.6931472 2.4849066 4.7095302
 3.124178
 0.000000 0.301030 1.079181 2.045323
 54.59815
 0.000000 1.000000 1.584963 2.000000``````

E is the Euler constant and is equal to exp(1).

The log() is a built-in R function that calculates logarithms of input values. The log() method calculates natural logarithms by default.

### Syntax

``log(x, base)``

### Arguments

x – It is numeric to which log has to be computed

base – It is the base of the log.

### Example

Let’s find the natural log of 19 using the log() function.

``````data <- log(19)
cat("The natural logarithm of 19 is: ")
cat(data)``````

### Output

``The natural logarithm of 19 is: 2.944439``

The natural log(ln) function is frequently used to rescale data for statistical and graphical analysis.

That is it for ln() function in R.

Categories R