# How to Use the ln() Function in R

The ln() function in R is “used to calculate the natural log of the input vector”. The default setting of the ln() function is to return the natural logarithm of a value.

### Syntax

``````ln(x)

ln1p()

lg()

lg1p(x)

E

lb()``````

### Parameters

x: It is a numeric or complex vector.

### Examples

We define ln() and ln1p() as wrappers for log()“ with defaultbase = exp(1) argument and for log1p(), respectively.

The lg1p() is a convenient way to use the optimized code to calculate the logarithm of x + 1 but return the result in the base 10 logarithms.

R does not come with an ln() function but provides a log10() function.

To use the ln() function, use the SciViews package.

``````library("SciViews")

ln(exp(2))
ln1p(c(0, 1, 11, 110))
lg(11 ^ 3)
lg1p(c(0, 1, 11, 110))
E ^ 4
lb(1:4)``````

Output

`````` 2
 0.0000000 0.6931472 2.4849066 4.7095302
 3.124178
 0.000000 0.301030 1.079181 2.045323
 54.59815
 0.000000 1.000000 1.584963 2.000000``````

E is the Euler constant and is equal to exp(1).

That’s it.