**Vector math** in **R** can be **“used to perform mathematical operations on vectors”**.

**Example 1: Vector arithmetics**

Let’s define two vectors and perform the addition operation.

```
vcA <- c(11, 21, 19)
vcB <- c(6, 18, 46)
summation <- vcA + vcB
cat(summation)
```

**Output**

`17 39 65`

The output here is the vector, the sum of the corresponding elements of two vectors, **vcA **and **vcB**.

**Example 2: Subtraction in R Vector**

We can perform the subtraction the same way as the vector addition.

```
vcA <- c(11, 21, 19)
vcB <- c(6, 18, 46)
subtract <- vcA - vcB
cat(subtract)
```

**Output**

`5 3 -27`

**Example 3: Division in R Vector**

To perform a division operation in an R vector, use the following code.

```
vcA <- c(10, 20, 30)
vcB <- c(2, 4, 6)
subtract <- vcA / vcB
cat(subtract)
```

**Output**

```
5 5 5
```

**Recycling Rule**

If two vectors are of unequal length, the shorter one will be recycled to match the longer vector.

For example, the following vectors** vcA** and** vcB** have different lengths, and their sum is computed by recycling values of the shorter vector** vcA**. Let’s understand with an example.

```
vcA <- c(10, 20, 30)
vcB <- c(2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12)
summation <- vcA + vcB
cat(summation)
```

**Output**

```
12 24 36 18 30 42
```

Here you can see that the first three values of the output are normal, but from the 4th value, it will take the 1st value of the **vcA** vector for addition and the 4th value of the **vcB** vector, and their sum is 18. (10 + 8).

The fifth value of the output will take the 2nd value of the 1st vector and the 5th value of the 2nd vector. So the 2nd **vcA** is 20, and the 5th **vcB** is 10. So the addition is (10 + 20 = 30). And the same calculation for the last element of the output.

Please note that, If the first vector is smaller than the second vector, then the second vector’s length is multiple of the first vector. Otherwise, the imbalance will be created, and R will throw a warning. Let’s understand the following code.

```
vcA <- c(10, 20, 30)
vcB <- c(2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14)
summation <- vcA + vcB
cat(summation)
```

**Output**

```
Warning message:
In vcA + vcB :
longer object length is not a multiple of shorter object length
12 24 36 18 30 42 24
```

You can see that the R interpreter throws the following warning.

**“longer object length is not a multiple of shorter object length.”**

That means a longer vector length is not a multiple of a shorter vector length. In our case, the longer vector is **vcB**, whose length is 7, and the shorter vector length is **vcA**, whose vector length is 3.

So, the longer vector length should be one of the 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, …, and so on. It should be in multiples of 3.

That is it for Vector Math in R.

Krunal Lathiya is a Software Engineer with over eight years of experience. He has developed a strong foundation in computer science principles and a passion for problem-solving. In addition, Krunal has excellent knowledge of Data Science and Machine Learning, and he is an expert in R Language.