# How to Calculate Square Root of a Number in R

To calculate the square root of any given number in R, you can use the “sqrt()” function. For example, sqrt(16) returns 4, and sqrt(c(1, 4, 9)) returns c(1, 2, 3).

### Syntax

``````sqrt(num)
``````

### Parameters

num: It’s a numerical value greater than 0.

### Return value

It returns the square root of the input.

## Example 1: Simple program to calculate square root in R

``````num <- 16

cat("The square root of 16 is: ", sqrt(num))``````

Output

``The square root of 16 is: 4``

## Example 2: Applying sqrt() function to vector in R

To find the square root of Vector in R, you can use the sqrt() function. The sqrt() function takes a Vector as an argument and returns each element’s square root.

``````rv <- c(11, 19, 21, 16, 49, 46)
rv_sqrt <- sqrt(rv)

print(rv_sqrt)``````

Output

`` 3.316625 4.358899 4.582576 4.000000 7.000000 6.782330``

You can see that it returns the square root of every vector element.

## Example 3: Applying sqrt() function to Matrix in R

To find the square root of Matrix in R, use the “sqrt()” function. The “sqrt()” function takes Matrix as an argument and returns the square root of each element.

``````rv <- c(11, 19, 21, 16, 49, 46)
mtrx <- matrix(rv, nrow = 2, ncol = 3)

print(mtrx)

cat("After calculating square root of matrx", "\n")
mt_sqrt <- sqrt(mtrx)

print(mt_sqrt)``````

Output

``````     [,1] [,2] [,3]
[1,]  11   21   49
[2,]  19   16   46

After calculating square root of matrx

[,1]     [,2]      [,3]
[1,] 3.316625  4.582576  7.00000
[2,] 4.358899  4.000000  6.78233``````

## Example 4: Applying sqrt() function to List in R

We can not find the square root of the List in R, and if we try to find it, it will give us the following error.

non-numeric argument to mathematical function

See the following code.

``````litt <- list(11, 19, 21, 16, 49, 46)
print(litt)

cat("After calculating square root of list", "\n")

list_sqrt <- sqrt(litt)
print(list_sqrt)``````

Output

``````After calculating square root of list
Error in sqrt(litt) : non-numeric argument to mathematical function
Execution halted``````

This error occurs when we are trying to find the square root of a non-numeric value.

The list and character string contain non-numeric values, returning a non-numeric argument to a mathematical function error.

## Example 5: Applying sqrt() function to factor

We can get the error with Factor as well. But that error is different than the above.

``````fact <- factor(10)
sqrt(fact)``````

#### Output

``````Error in Math.factor(fact) : ‘sqrt’ not meaningful for factors
Execution halted``````

To calculate the square root of the factor and fix the error, use “as.numeric()” and “as.character()” with sqrt() method.

``````fact <- factor(10)
print("The factor is: ")

print(fact)

sqrt_fact <- sqrt(as.numeric(as.character(fact)))
print("The square root of factor is: ", sqrt_fact)

print(sqrt_fact)``````

Output

`````` "The factor is: "
 10
Levels: 10
 "The square root of factor is: "
 3.162278``````

You can see that now we get the square root of factor 10, which is 3.162278

That’s it.