To calculate a square of a single value or a Vector in R, you can use one of the following methods.

- Using ^ operator
- Using * operator
- Using sapply() function

**Calculate Square in R**

To calculate square in R, use the **^ **operator or multiply the input value by itself, and you will get the square of the input value.

The ^ is an arithmetic operator that is used to find the exponent of the vector.

If you have a single integer variable data whose value is 11 and you want to find the square of it, then write the following code.

```
rv <- 11
sqr <- rv ^ 2
sqr
```

**Output**

`[1] 121`

And we got the correct answer, which is indeed 121. This method is a bit faster.

You can also use the multiplication operator in which we will multiply the input value by itself, and in our case, it is 11.

```
rv <- 11
sqr <- rv * 11
sqr
```

**Output**

`[1] 121`

We get the same output.

## Calculate Square of All Values in R Vector

To calculate the square of all the values of R Vector, apply the ^ operator to the vector which returns the vector with squared values. To create a Vector in R, use the c() function.

```
rv <- c(11, 21, 19, 18, 46)
sqrdVec <- rv ^ 2
sqrdVec
```

**Output**

`[1] 121 441 361 324 2116`

You can see that it will return a Vector in which all the elements have been squared.

**Using sapply() function**

If you come across a somewhat complicated case, then you can use the sapply() function. The sapply() is a built-in R function that applies a function to all the elements of the input Vector or Matrix.

```
rv <- c(11, 21, 19, 18, 46)
sqrdVec <- sapply(rv, function(x) x ^ 2)
sqrdVec
```

**Output**

`[1] 121 441 361 324 2116`

**Calculate the Square of the data frame**

To calculate the square of the data frame in R, use the ^ operator.

To create a data frame, use the data.frame() method.

`df <- data.frame(a1 = 1:3, a2 = 4:6, a3 = 7:9)`

To calculate the square of each element of the data frame, use the ^ operator.

```
df <- data.frame(a1 = 1:3, a2 = 4:6, a3 = 7:9)
df ^ 2
```

**Output**

```
a1 a2 a3
1 1 16 49
2 4 25 64
3 9 36 81
```

That is it for this tutorial.