There are the following methods to to **calculate** a **square**,

- Method 1: Using the
**^ operator** - Method 2: Using
*** operator** - Method 3: Using the
**sapply() function**

**Method 1: Using the ^ operator**

To **calculate** the **square** in **R**, use the **^ operator** or multiply the input value by itself, and you will get the square of the input value.

The ^ is an arithmetic operator used to find the exponent of the vector.

If you have a single integer variable data whose value is 11 and want to find its square, write the following code.

```
rv <- 11
sqr <- rv ^ 2
sqr
```

**Output**

`[1] 121`

And we got the correct answer, which is indeed 121. This method is a bit faster.

**Method 2: Using the * operator**

You can also use the multiplication operator in which we will multiply the input value by itself; in our case, it is 11.

```
rv <- 11
sqr <- rv * 11
sqr
```

**Output**

`[1] 121`

We get the same output.

**Calculating the Square of All Values in the R Vector**

To calculate the square of all the values of the R Vector, apply the ^ operator to the vector, which returns the vector with squared values. To create a Vector in R, use the c() function.

```
rv <- c(11, 21, 19, 18, 46)
sqrdVec <- rv ^ 2
sqrdVec
```

**Output**

`[1] 121 441 361 324 2116`

You can see that it will return a Vector in which all the elements have been squared.

**Method 3: Using the sapply() function**

If you encounter a somewhat complicated case, you can use the sapply() function. The sapply() is a built-in R function that applies a function to all the elements of the input Vector or Matrix.

```
rv <- c(11, 21, 19, 18, 46)
sqrdVec <- sapply(rv, function(x) x ^ 2)
sqrdVec
```

**Output**

`[1] 121 441 361 324 2116`

**How to calculate the Square of the data frame in R**

To calculate the square of the data frame in R, use the ^ operator.

`df <- data.frame(a1 = 1:3, a2 = 4:6, a3 = 7:9)`

To calculate the square of each element of the data frame, use the ^ operator.

```
df <- data.frame(a1 = 1:3, a2 = 4:6, a3 = 7:9)
df ^ 2
```

**Output**

```
a1 a2 a3
1 1 16 49
2 4 25 64
3 9 36 81
```

**Conclusion**

To calculate the square of a vector in R, you can use the built-in **^ operator**. Apart from the **^ operator**, you can also use the** * operator** and **sapply()** function.

That is it for this tutorial.

**See also**

Krunal Lathiya is a Software Engineer with over eight years of experience. He has developed a strong foundation in computer science principles and a passion for problem-solving. In addition, Krunal has excellent knowledge of Data Science and Machine Learning, and he is an expert in R Language.