## Standard Error in R: What is it and How to Calculate it

R does not come with a standard error function. You need to create a standard error function or use a package like plotrix to calculate. Standard Error in R The standard error in R is just the standard deviation divided by the square root of the sample size. The variance of the sampling distribution is … Read more

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The natural log in mathematics is the logarithm to the base of the number e, which is the inverse function of an exponential function. Natural logs are specific logarithms used to solve time and growth problems. Natural log in R To calculate the natural log in R, use the ln() function. The ln() is a … Read more

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## Length in R: How to Find Length of List, Vector, and String

Finding the length of vectors, factors, arrays, or lists is a common operation. Length in R To get the length of vectors, lists,  factors, or other objects in R, use the length() method. Syntax length(data) Parameters The length() function accepts data as a required parameter that can be either vector, factor, list, or other objects. Return Value … Read more

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## R append to string: How to append string in R

R does not have a string built-in data type but any value written within a pair of single quotes or double quotes is considered as a string. You can format strings to a specific style using the format() function. R append to string To append a string in R, use the paste() function. The paste() is a … Read more

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## Not equal to in R: The Inequality Operator in R

R language has many types of operators to carry out logical, comparative, and mathematical operations. For example, relational operators are used to compare between values. Not equal to in R The not equal operator in R is one of the relational operators, and it is the opposite of the equality operator. The not equal to … Read more

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## as.numeric in R: How to Convert to Numeric Value

The numeric() method creates or coerces objects of type “numeric”.  The is.numeric() is a built-in function used for a more comprehensive test of an object being interpretable as numbers. Factors are data structures that categorize or represent categorical data and save it on multiple levels. They can be saved as integers with an equal label … Read more

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## Mode in R: How to Find Mode of Vectors

The mode in R is the value with the highest number of occurrences in a set of data. Unlike the mean and median, the mode can have both numeric and character data. Mode in R There is no built-in function to calculate the mode in R. To calculate mode in R, you have to create … Read more

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## percentile in R: How to Calculate Percentile using quantile()

Percentages and percentiles are related in many ways, and sometimes these names are used interchangeably, but they are different terms. A percentage describes a fraction, while a percentile describes the fraction of the data points of a data set below a specific point. Both a percentage and percentile value provide helpful information about the dataset, … Read more

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## R Date Format: How to format dates using format()

R programming language provides several functions to deal with date and time. Formatting and converting dates from one format to another is a frequent task any developer could face. The general rule of thumb for dealing with date/time in R is to use the simplest technique possible. Otherwise, it gets ugly and complex. R Date … Read more

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## scale in R: How to Use scale() Function

Scaling is a process to compare the data that is not measured in the same approach. Scaling is the normalization of a dataset using the mean value and standard deviation. Scaling is often used with vectors or columns of a data frame. The scaling is especially helpful in a regression analysis where the magnitude range … Read more

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