The c() function in R is “used to combine or concatenate its argument”. The c() stands for “combine”. It returns the output by giving parameters inside the function.
c(…, recursive = FALSE, use.names = TRUE)
- …: They are the objects to be concatenated.
- recursive: It is logical. If recursive = TRUE, the function recursively descends through lists (and pairlists), combining all their elements into a vector.
- use.names: It is a logical argument indicating if names should be preserved.
The c() function returns NULL, an expression, or a vector of an appropriate mode.
Example 1: Simple use of the c() function
In R, the c() function returns a vector.
rv <- c(19, 21) rv rv rv
 19 21  19  21
If you want to create a vector with 11 entries, use the following function.
data <- (1:11) print(data)
 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Example 2: Concatenate two vectors using the c() function
To concatenate two vectors in R, you can use the c() function.
p <- c(1, 1) p <- c(1, 5) p <- c(p, c(1, 1.5)) p <- c(p, p) print(p)
 1.0 5.0 1.0 1.5 1.0 5.0 1.0 1.5
You can see that the output is a combined vector.
To combine values into a vector or list, you can use the “c()” function.
That is it for the c() function in R.
Krunal Lathiya is a Software Engineer with over eight years of experience. He has developed a strong foundation in computer science principles and a passion for problem-solving. In addition, Krunal has excellent knowledge of Data Science and Machine Learning, and he is an expert in R Language.