How to Use the c() Function in R

The c() function in R is “used to combine or concatenate its argument”. The c() stands for “combine”. It returns the output by giving parameters inside the function.


c(…, recursive = FALSE, use.names = TRUE)


  1. …: They are the objects to be concatenated.
  2. recursive: It is logical. If recursive = TRUE, the function recursively descends through lists (and pairlists), combining all their elements into a vector.
  3. use.names: It is a logical argument indicating if names should be preserved.

Return Value

The c() function returns NULL, an expression, or a vector of an appropriate mode.

Example 1: Simple use of the c() function

In R, the c() function returns a vector.

rv <- c(19, 21)


[1] 19 21
[1] 19
[1] 21

If you want to create a vector with 11 entries, use the following function.

data <- (1:11)


 [1] 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

Example 2: Concatenate two vectors using the c() function

To concatenate two vectors in R, you can use the c() function.

p <- c(1, 1)
p <- c(1, 5)
p <- c(p, c(1, 1.5))
p <- c(p, p)


[1] 1.0 5.0 1.0 1.5 1.0 5.0 1.0 1.5

You can see that the output is a combined vector.

To combine values into a vector or list, you can use the “c()” function.

That is it for the c() function in R.

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