c Function in R: How to Create Vector using c() Function

To create a vector in R, one of the ways is to use the c() function. The c() function is S4 generic, but with argument list (x, …).

c Function in R

The c() is a built-in generic function that combines its arguments. The c function in R is used to create a vector with values you provide explicitly. The default method combines its arguments to form a vector.

All arguments are coerced to a common type of the returned value, and all attributes except names are removed.


c(…, recursive = FALSE, use.names = TRUE)


…: They are the objects to be concatenated.
recursive: It is logical. If recursive = TRUE, the function recursively descends through lists (and pairlists), combining all their elements into a vector.
use.names: It is a logical argument indicating if names should be preserved.

Return Value

The c() function returns NULL or an expression or a vector of an appropriate mode.


In R, the c() function returns a vector.

rv <- c(19, 21)


[1] 19 21
[1] 19
[1] 21

If you want to create a vector with 11 entries, use the following function.

data <- (1:11)


 [1] 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

Concatenate two vectors using c() function

To concatenate two vectors in R, use the c() function.

p <- c(1, 1)
p <- c(1, 5)
p <- c(p, c(1, 1.5))
p <- c(p, p)


[1] 1.0 5.0 1.0 1.5 1.0 5.0 1.0 1.5

You can see that the output is a combined vector.

To combine values into a vector or list, use the c() function.

That is it for the c() function in R.

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