How to Create an Empty Vector in R

Create an Empty Vector in R

Here are six methods to create an empty Vector in R: Using vector() Use c() Using numeric() Using character() Using rep() Assigning NULL to an existing vector Method 1: Using vector() rv <- vector() rv Output logical(0) To check the length of the vector, use the “length()” method. rv <- vector() vec(rv) Output [1] 0 … Read more

How to Create an Empty List in R

Create an Empty List in R

Here are three ways to create an empty list in R: Using list() Using vector() Assigning NULL to empty an existing list An empty list is a list that does not contain any elements. Method 1: Using list() to create a list with zero-length Use the “list()” function and “pass no parameter”. Syntax empty_data = list() … Read more

How to Check Data type in R [5 Ways]

check data type in R

Here are five ways to check data type in R: Using class(): For checking a single variable. Using str(): For checking the data type of every variable in a data frame. Using typeof(): For checking more basic data type of the object. Using is.* Functions: For checking specific data types. Using mode() (not recommended): For checking … Read more

R strsplit() Function

R strsplit() Function

R strsplit() function is used to split the elements of a character vector into substrings based on the provided delimiter and returns a list of the same length as input. Syntax strsplit(x, split, fixed=T) Parameters x:  It is a character vector. split: It is a character of a string being split. fixed: It matches the … Read more

How to Print Output in R [6 Ways]

print() Function in R

Here are six primary methods used to print output in R: Using print() Using implicit printing Using cat() Using message(), warning(), and stop() Using sprintf() to format string Writing to a file Method 1: Using print() The print() function is explicitly used to display the value of an object. Syntax print(data, digits, na.print) Parameters data: … Read more

How to Calculate AIC in R (With Example)

Calculate AIC in R

To calculate AIC in R, you can use the AIC() function after fitting a model. Lower AIC values suggest better models but there’s no absolute “good” or “bad” AIC. It’s a relative measure. Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) is a model selection metric that helps to compare different statistical models by balancing goodness of fit with the … Read more

How to Calculate Standard Error in R

Calculate Standard Error in R

Here are three ways to calculate standard error in R: Using sd() with length() Using standard error formula Using std.error() from plotrix package Method 1: Using sd() with length() Divide the standard deviation by the square root of the number of sample data. The formula for calculating Standard Error: Syntax sd(data)/sqrt(length((data))) Visual Representation Example # vector rv … Read more

How to Check If Characters are Present in String in R

Check If Characters are Present in String in R

To check if characters are present in a string, use the grepl() function. This function performs pattern matching and returns a logical vector indicating whether a match was found in each element of the input. Visual representation Example 1: Basic usage string_first <- “TheLastOfUs” value_first <- “L” grepl(value_first, string_first) value_second <- “G” grepl(value_second, string_first) Output [1] … Read more